Возможные виды ограничений права собственности на землю

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Загородная недвижимость


Возможные виды ограничений права собственности на землю

 Законами РФ устанавливается ряд условий или запрещений, ограничивающих право собственности на  на землю при использовании его владельцами.

Они могут быть по  разным основаниям: по объекту (категории земель), по правомочиям, по субъекту и т.д.

Давайте рассмотрим основные их этих ограничений.

Ограничения права собственности на землю

В соответствии с ГК РФ собственник обладает правом владения, пользования и распоряжения принадлежащим ему имуществом.

Одно из ограничений прав собственника земельного участка распространяется на залог или ипотеку.

Залог выступает одним из надежнейших способов обеспечить исполнение обязательств. Залогодателем земельного участка может выступать исключительно собственник.

Именно он сохраняет за собой право пользования заложенной собственностью, в том числе и право – извлекать из нее плоды и доходы.

Но при этом существуют установленные ограничения права при распоряжении заложенной собственностью.

Собственник, который передал имущество в залог, при возникновении у него желания продать, подарить или обменять данное имущество, обязан получить на это согласие кредитора-залогодержателя.

Следующим ограничением является арест имущества, то есть запрет на распоряжение им. Это значит, что собственник не имеет права его продавать, менять, дарить и т.д.

Пожизненное наследуемое владение

Данная форма землевладения после введения Земельного кодекса РФ более не предоставляется. Но для тех, кто получил этот титул ранее, права сохраняются.
Владелец земельного участка может владеть и пользоваться им, строить на нем различные объекты  недвижимости, вступив при этом в права собственности. Разрешается также сдавать  имущество в аренду или безвозмездное срочное пользование.

Однако он не может свободно распоряжаться участком, то есть не имеет право его продать, подарить или отдать в залог.

Постоянное бессрочное пользование

В данное время большое количество земельных участков  принадлежит гражданам на праве постоянного бессрочного пользования. После принятия Земельного кодекса РФ выделение участков на таком праве не применяется.

При данной форме владения также не допускается  свободное распоряжение, то есть проведение сделок купли-продажи.

Граждане, обладающие  земельными участками в пожизненном наследуемом владении или постоянном бессрочном пользовании, могут бесплатно приобрести их в собственность.

Юридические лица имеют право переоформить такие участки в аренду или приобрести их в собственность.

Сервитут

Данный вид ограничений мы уже подробно рассмотрели в одноименной статье.

Так называют право ограниченного пользования чужой недвижимостью. Данное ограничение прав бывает в публичном интересе и в интересе частных лиц.

Публичные сервитуты вводятся законом при необходимости обеспечения интересов государства или местного населения.

Для ограничения прав собственника-гражданина устанавливается частный сервитут.

Ограничение права собственности на землю по субъектному составу

Они могут быть двух видов:

  1. Граждане других государств не имеют право владеть  земельными участками на приграничных территориях и землями сельскохозяйственного назначения.
  1. Участки в постоянное бессрочное пользование могут выделяться не физическим, а исключительно юридическим лицам.

Ограничения использования земельного объекта

Согласно Земельному кодексу РФ все объекты по целевому назначению делятся на различные категории.

Для примера, не допускается оформление  в собственность земель лесного фонда. Эти земли передаются исключительно на праве аренды.

Кроме вышеперечисленных, могут применяться ограничения связанные:

  • с особым использованием земель;
  • с охраной окружающей природной среды;
  • с защитой памятников природы, истории и культуры, археологических объектов и т. д.

Ограничения права собственности на землю, связанные с ее оборотом

Земли, изъятые из оборота, не предоставляются в частную собственность и не могут быть объектами сделок купли-продажи.

Если же они  являются ограниченными в обороте, то иногда, в исключительных случаях, они могут перейти в  собственность.

 

Видео на тему:

Покупка земли под частную застройку. Нюансы

 

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