Предварительный договор купли-продажи недвижимости. Ч.2

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Предварительный договор купли продажи недвижимости 2

Предварительный договор купли-продажи недвижимости. Ч.2

Здравствуйте!

Продолжаем с вами рассмотрение вопроса как правильно составить предварительный договор купли-продажи недвижимости.

3. Предварительный договор обязательно должен быть заключен именно в той форме, что установлена для основного договора (но как минимум, в письменной).

Несоблюдение этих правил о форме влечет ничтожность предварительного договора, то есть если его подписать в неправильной форме, то он не вызовет юридических последствий, перечисленных в п. 1.2.

Для разных договоров законом установлены разные требования к их форме (например, договор ренты - обязательно в нотариальной форме, договор купли продажи или аренды недвижимости - может быть в простой письменной в виде единого документа).

Так как предварительный договор необходимо заключать в той форме, которая обязательна для основного, то, например, для предварительного договора купли-продажи недвижимости в общем случае достаточно простой письменной формы.

Однако, необходимо иметь в виду, что стороны вправе установить дополнительные (по  сравнению с законом) требования к форме договора, предусмотрев, например, что договор купли-продажи недвижимости они будут заключать обязательно в нотариальной форме.

С  точки зрения предварительного договора это означает следующее: если стороны написали в нем фразу, из которой явно следует, что основной договор необходимо заключать в нотариальной форме, то такой предварительный договор купли-продажи недвижимости также придется заключать обязательно в нотариальной форме.

Вывод 3:

Если основной договор будет нужен обязательно в нотариальной форме, то, чтобы иметь право настаивать потом на его заключении именно у нотариуса, придется вписывать такое условие в предварительный договор и сам предварительный договор также заключать в нотариальной форме.

Но с другой стороны, если вы хотите, чтобы, заключаемый в простой письменной форме предварительный договор был действительным, то в него уже нельзя включать условие об обязательной нотариальной форме будущего основного договора (нельзя упоминать в нем   о необходимости будущего появления у нотариуса для заключения основного договора).

4. Отсутствие срока в предварительном договоре купли-продажи недвижимости не делает его недействительным, так как в этом случае срок определяется законом (ГК РФ), а именно: основной договор обязательно должен быть заключен в течение года после заключения предварительного договора.

Тем не менее, в предварительном договоре желательно явно указывать срок, в течение которого должен быть оформлен основной договор. В таком случае (явного указания) умолчание закона (о  годичном сроке заключения) не действует, а основной договор надо заключать в тот срок, который указан в предварительном.

4.1. Пожалуй, следует обратить внимание на один нюанс определения срока. В законе применяется конкретный термин «срок, в который должен быть заключен основной договор». Поэтому настоятельно рекомендуем использовать в предварительном договоре купли-продажи недвижимости именно этот термин.

Если же вместо него установить, например, срок действия  предварительного договора, то однозначность понимания нарушается. В частности, в этом случае возможно толкование, о заключении основного договора в течение года (по умолчанию закона), несмотря на то, что срок действия самого предварительного договора отличен от годичного.

Предварительный договор купли продажи недвижимости 3

4.2. Еще  один  нюанс   касается  того,   что   вытекающая  из   предварительного  договора обязанность заключить основной договор прекращается, если в установленный для этого срок основной договор заключен не будет и при этом ни одна сторона не направит другой предложение заключить данный договор.

Следовательно,  с одной стороны, если стороны предварительного договора  купли-продажи недвижимости обоюдно передумали заключать основной договор, то им в принципе даже не обязательно составлять какие-либо соглашения о прекращении предварительного договора, а достаточно просто не заключать основной договор в срок, предусмотренный для такого действия, и не направлять друг другу в связи с этим никаких предложений или претензий.

Однако,  с другой  стороны,  если  одна сторона уклоняется  (умышленно) от  заключения  основного договора,  а другая понуждает ее к заключению,  своевременно  направив  ей хотя бы претензию, то истечение срока на заключение основного договора уже не прекращает соответствующую обязанность.

Направляли   ли   стороны   предварительного   договора   друг   другу   соответствующие требования (претензии) или нет, достоверно знают только они сами. Агентство же сможет доподлинно убедиться в прекращении обязанности клиентов заключить основной договор, только если они сами ему это письменно подтвердят.

Вывод 4: 

Указание  в  предварительном договоре купли-продажи недвижимости срока,  в   течение которого   должен  быть  заключен основной   договор,    важно,    но    все-таки    не    обязательно.

Если    этот    срок    в предварительном договоре не указан или указан неграмотно, это лишь означает, что  стороны оказались обязанными заключить основной договор в течение года с момента подписания предварительного.

5. Надо четко понимать, что из предварительного договора не вытекают ни обязательства по передаче имущества, проведению работ или оказанию услуг, ни обязательства по оплате какого бы то ни было имущества, работ (услуг).

То есть, в общем случае по нему нет никаких денежных обязательств, такие обязательства возникнут только после заключения сторонами основного договора (если он вообще будет когда-нибудь заключен).

На практике же одной из сторон зачастую важно получить некие денежные средства не после заключения основного договора, а уже при подписании предварительного договора купли-продажи недвижимости.

В  принципе  это  возможно  организовать,  учитывая  при  этом,  что   по  предварительному договору нет (и не может быть) никакого платежа за имущество (работы, услуги), а значит,   денежные  средства,  переходящие  по  предварительному договору,  не  могут быть  ни авансом, ни задатком (так как и то и другое по закону это предварительный платеж за имущество, работы или услуги).

К сожалению,    этот нюанс не понимают (или не хотят понимать) даже некоторые нотариусы, но сути дела это не меняет, - передать деньги по предварительному договору можно лишь в виде суммы,  обеспечивающей исполнение сторонами предварительного договора их обязанности заключить в последующем основной договор.

Вывод 5: 

Нам известен единственный законный способ, каким можно, заключая предварительный договор купли-продажи недвижимости, создать обязанность по уплате денежных средств, обозначить эти средства не как платеж (аванс, задаток) по будущему основному договору, а как обеспечительную сумму, призванную стимулировать стороны сделки к последующему заключению основного договора.

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