Покупка земельного участка. Сделка без ошибок. ч.1

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Загородная недвижимость

Покупка земельного участка. Сделка без ошибок. ч.1

Знание некоторых правовых аспектов при покупке земельного участка уже на этапе предварительной подготовки поможет Вам отсечь очевидно "непроходные" варианты.

Даже в том случае, когда Вы приняли решение воспользоваться услугами профессионала из надежного агентства недвижимости, будет совсем нелишним познакомиться со всеми документами лично.

Ну а в том случае, когда Вы проводите сделку самостоятельно, без скрупулезного анализа всех документов просто не обойтись.

С чего нужно начинать 

Первым делом необходимо изучить самый главный документ - кадастровый (план) паспорт земельного участка. Предметом сделки может быть исключительно тот земельный надел, что прошел государственный кадастровый учет и имеет соответствующий номер.

Данный документ должен содержать все сведения о земельном участке: его площадь, место расположения, границы, координаты, категорию земель и разрешенное использование, а также кадастровую стоимость (кстати, она практически никогда не совпадает с рыночной).

В том случае, когда у Вас возникли сомнения, перед покупкой земельного участка его границы можно ревизовать с помощью геодезиста.

Самого пристального интереса у Вас должна вызвать такая графа в кадастровом паспорте как "особые отметки". Довольно часто в ней значится, что "границы не установлены" или  "площадь ориентировочная". Это говорит о том, что в госкадастре недвижимости данный участок не имеет координатного описания границ.

Однако отсутствие межевания не может рассматриваться как  препятствие для госрегистрации права собственности или для проведения покупки земельного участка.

Но будьте внимательны – наличие такой записи не исключает возможность претензий в обозримом будущем со стороны, например, ближайших соседей.

Из чего можно выбирать 

Следующим шагом будет  анализ категории земель и вида разрешенного использования данного земельного участка и сопоставление полученных данных Вашим целям.

Согласно действующему законодательству объект загородной недвижимости допускается  строить исключительно на землях населенных пунктов (землях поселений), а так же на  землях сельскохозяйственного назначения.

К таковым относят земельные участки для индивидуального жилищного строительства (ИЖС), личного подсобного хозяйства (ЛПХ), дачного строительства, садоводства и ведения дачного хозяйства.

Однако здесь достаточно много нюансов. Например, на землях сельхозназначения не разрешено индивидуальное жилищное строительство, а вот  строительство поселков в форме садовых/дачных некоммерческих партнерств (товариществ), либо дачных строительных кооперативов (ДСК, СНТ, ДНП) - разрешается.

Давайте внесем ясность в вопрос, что же такое ЛПХ 

Для начала - это анахронизм, доставшийся нам еще от советских времен. Современные юристы ломают голову, над вопросом как вообще к этому можно относиться. Совсем недавно принятый Земельный кодекс не говорит об этом ничего.

Так чем же отличаются между собой ИЖС  и ЛПХ и на что необходимо акцентировать внимание при покупке земельных участков?

Главное отличие. Человек, владеющий  земельным  участком под ЛПХ, гарантированно имеет право использовать свой участок и для производства, и для переработки сельхоз продукции. А проще говоря - разбить там сад-огород.

Идем дальше. Все земельные участки для ЛПХ, в свою очередь делятся на две категории: на участки в границах населенных пунктов (приусадебные земельные участки) и участки за пределами границ населенных пунктов (полевые земельные участки).

В первом варианте владелец участка имеет полное право построить  на нем как жилой дом, так и бытовые, производственные и другие здания, сооружения или строения. Если же участок ЛПХ расположен за границами населенного пункта, то возведение дома, бани или иного строения на нем запрещено.

Земельный участок под индивидуальное жилищное строительство — это гарантия права на строительство жилого дома. Более того. Все земельные участки, выделенные под ИЖС, местные органы самоуправления обязаны обеспечить полным набором инфраструктуры: школы, больницы, дороги (зимой они должны расчищаться), магазины, общественный транспорт — все по специальным нормативам.

Как Вы наверное догадались - это является одной  из основных причин, по которой местные власти столь  неохотно выделяют земли под ИЖС.

Все мы, жители городских и сельских улиц прекрасно знаем, что заставить местные власти отремонтировать дорогу около дома представляется возможным, лишь приведя доказательства того, что Вы ждете в гости  губернатора…

Так что статус ИЖС отнюдь не гарантирует Вам райскую жизнь.

Вторым существенным отличием являются налоги. Необходимо отметить, что, будучи владельцем участка под ИЖС, вы имеете право рассчитывать на получение налогового вычета при строительстве на нем жилого дома. Налоговый вычет, согласно Налоговому кодексу, составит величину фактически произведенных расходов.

При этом нельзя забывать и тот факт, что если за 10 лет с момента госрегистрации прав на земельный участок дом так и не будет построен, то по истечении этих 10 лет земельный налог будет начисляться в двойном размере.

Отличие третье (про ПМЖ). В том случае, когда в документах на участок категория земли прописана как «земли населенных пунктов», регистрация в построенном на нем доме возможна.

И совсем  не важно, какой вид использования разрешен: ИЖС или ЛПХ. Разумеется, что все это действует при условии, что участок находится в собственности, а дом зарегистрирован и введен в эксплуатацию.

Разуметься существует процедура перевода земли в другую категорию. Однако, процедура эта потребует весьма существенных средства и дополнительного времени.

Кроме того, необходимо помнить, что в случае ненадлежащего использования земельный участок может быть подвергнут принудительному изъятию.

На сегодня все. Но это далеко не вся информация, которую нужно знать при  покупке земельного участка.

 

Видео на тему:

Ошибки и проблемы при выборе и покупке земельного участка - ч. 1

 

 

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  2. Валентина сказал:

    А можно ли купить участок у одного хозяина на двоих хозяев, не родственников

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    Да, разумеется. Можно покупать, заранее указав размер долей собственников. Например, 1/3 и 2/3. Каждый из владельцев получит свидетельство о праве собственности и, в дальнейшем, волен распоряжаться своей собственностью так же, как и с целым участком. Правда, с некоторыми ограничениями.

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