Перепланировка квартиры

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Городская недвижимость

Перепланировка квартиры

В том случае, когда выявляется незаконная перепланировка квартиры, последствия такого «улучшения» для нового владельца могут быть чрезвычайно неприятными.

Наименее легкий вариант - его ожидают дополнительные расходы, в худшем - новый собственник квартиры может быть лишен права распоряжаться приобретенным жильем.

На сегодняшний день в Жилищном кодексе Российской Федерации наличествуют два понятия — перепланировка и переустройство жилых помещений. В ходе переустройства допускаются  изменения инженерных сетей или схемы энергообеспечения квартиры.

Перепланировка же подразумевает изменение расположения или количества комнат, а порой и площади квартиры. Любые трансформации, произошедшие с ней, обязательно должны быть отражены в техпаспорте жилого помещения. При не выполнении данного условия, видоизмененную квартиру очень трудно будет продать, завещать или подарить.

Результаты таких незаконных модификаций могут иметь  очень серьезные последствия. В случае несогласованной  перепланировки квартиры ее владельцу, как минимум,  грозит серьезный штраф.

В случае, когда перепланировка была выполнена с изменением  технических характеристик задания (снос несущей стены и др.), владельцу выписывается предписание вернуть квартиру в первозданный вид в назначенный срок, либо согласовать с соответствующими инстанциями произведенную  перепланировку по всем правилам.

В том случае, когда нынешний хозяин квартиры уклоняется от выполнения предписания, ему  грозит судебный процесс или даже выселение с последующей продажей квартиры на аукционе.

Средства, полученные после продажи, будут направлены на  ремонт для возврата квартиры в первоначальное состояние. А вот оставшиеся от ремонта деньги будут возвращены выселенному владельцу.

Очень часто причиной нарушений бывает не юридическая неосведомленность, а желание сэкономить время и денежные средства. Процедура согласования перепланировки на самом деле довольно-таки сложна. Необходимо подготовить целый пакет  документов и справок.

В самом сложном случае на утверждение проекта перепланировки квартиры может уйти до полугода. Однако затраты при этом по сравнению со стоимостью самих работ незначительны.

Но все же, я думаю,  разумнее идти законным путем, и не только потому, что в противоположном варианте вам угрожают неприятности.

На сегодняшний день многоквартирный дом представляет из себя сложную инженерную конструкцию со строго рассчитанным резервом прочности. Любые самовольные видоизменения в его конструкции могут привести к необратимыми последствиями.

Произвести перепланировку квартиры имеет вправо любой владелец или наниматель, однако  только при выполнении условия, что он непременно имеет  на то разрешение соответствующих инстанций.

Необходимо заблаговременно оформить документы, свидетельствующие о том , что при перепланировке не будут нарушены строительные нормы,  обеспечивается целостность дома и соблюдаются права соседей.

Вот несколько советов о том, на что необходимо обратить внимание при желании переустроить собственное жилище или любое другое  помещение, перепланировка которых затрагивает интересы соседей:

  • Категорически запрещено: любая разборка межквартирных перегородок, переноска тепловых радиаторов на  застекленные лоджии, подключение  теплых полов  к общедомовым сетям;
  • Без согласований разрешается (не является переустройством): проведение косметического ремонта, переустройство антресолей и встроенной мебели, замена технического оборудования на аналогичное на том же месте в квартире;
  • Признаны переустройством и необходимо согласование: переоборудование, перепланировка, реконструкция;
  • Переоборудование: демонтаж или установка иного инженерного оборудования, которые влекут за собой изменения назначения помещений, либо к увеличению нагрузок на домовые сети, замена  газовых плит на электрические.  Сюда же относятся оборудование ванных, туалетов и кухонь в квартирах "без отделки".

Согласования проекта не требуется только при  демонтаже оборудования с сохранением стояков водоснабжения и канализации.

  • Реконструкция: практически все работы по фасаду здания. Включая установку антенн, остекление лоджий и монтаж кондиционеров. Все виды работ требуют согласования проекта, а для работ по объединению балконов и лоджий с жилыми помещениями еще и санкцию архитектурного комитета;
  • Перепланировка: все, что связанно со стенами и перекрытиями. Согласованный проект необходим только для работ, касающихся несущих стен, полов и потолков.

К какому типу относится именно Ваша затея, решает жилинспекция.

При согласовании любого вида переустройства нужен проект или эскиз. Проект заказывается  в специализированной лицензированной фирме. Точнее в частной архитектурной организации, имеющей лицензию.

Цена проекта зависит от объема и видов  работ, а так же от статуса фирмы. Все обязанности архитектора-подрядчика относительно  переустройства и документооборот между фирмой и жилинспекцией указаны в постановлении.

В межведомственную комиссию при ЖЭУ необходимо подать заявление на проведение перепланировки квартиры.

Потребуются правоустанавливающие документы, доказывающие право собственности на жилье, заявление о согласии всех  проживающих в данной квартире совершеннолетних членов семьи, инвентаризационный план дома (заверенный в ПИБе) на саму квартиру и прилегающие помещения.

Если квартира находится в доме, являющемся памятником истории и культуры, то потребуется решение Комитета по государственному контролю и охране памятников истории и культуры о допустимой возможности и условиях проведения перепланировки квартиры.

Межведомственная комиссия рассмотрит переданные материалы, осмотрит помещения на месте и выскажет свое заключение техническим протоколом о целесообразности и возможности  намечаемых работ.

Совсем не легче достанется и нанимателю казенной квартиры, самовольно перестроившему свое жилище и не узаконившему внесенные изменения. Если в ходе работ будет нанесен вред смежным помещениям, а жилец откажется устранять результаты, с ним возможно будет расторгнут договор социального найма.

Решением суда человеку будет предоставлено другое жилье, но гораздо меньшей площади. За счет разницы в стоимости квартир будут проведены работы по приведению жилплощади в первоначальное состояние и оплачены судебные издержки.

Самовольная перепланировка квартиры становится постоянной головной болью для добросовестного покупателя жилья.

Действующий Жилищный Кодекс РФ не воспрещает продажу квартир с проведенными в них небольшими изменениями. Однако перекладывает обязательства по ликвидации перепланировок на нового владельца  квартиры.

А это значит, что ответственность за ранее совмещенные комнаты или стены, произведенные прежним владельцем квартиры, несет ее нынешний хозяин. Поэтому в интересах добросовестного покупателя потребовать у нынешнего владельца квартиры ее техпаспорт  и проверить соответствие документа реальному состоянию жилплощади.

К небольшим перепланировкам относятся, например, демонтаж встроенной мебели, не повлекший изменения общей или жилой площади, совмещение ванной и туалета , установка дополнительной мойки на кухне и др.

Серьезными перепланировками,  подлежащими согласованию, являются изменение наружных границ квартиры, общей или жилой площади объекта недвижимости, размещение ванной, туалета, или кухни над жилыми комнатами соседей.

А объясняется все тем, что при изменении площади старый объект недвижимости перестает (юридически) существовать, документы о праве собственности на жилище, имеющиеся у нынешнего владельца, полученные им до перепланировки квартиры, становятся юридически недействительными.

А значит, чтобы провести сделку купли-продажи, необходимо заново регистрировать право собственности на изменившуюся жилплощадь.

Незаконная перепланировка квартиры  может помешать совершению ипотечной сделки, так как из-за внесенных изменений уменьшается стоимость залога. Поэтому большинством банков не выдаются кредиты на покупку квартир с несогласованными перепланировками.

Из всего вышесказанного следует только один вывод – все перепланировки в квартире необходимо узаконить.

Видео на тему:

Перепланировка квартиры: правила и запреты

 

 

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