Какую доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью можно выдавать

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Доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью

Какую доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью можно выдавать

Здравствуйте! 

Вопрос, прозвучавший в заголовке сегодняшней статьи:" Какую доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью можно выдавать?" – отнюдь не праздный. То, что таких сделок, где одной из сторон является лицо,  действующее по доверенности, очень много - показывает ежедневная практика.

Главное – понимать, кого и какими функциями мы наделяем. При  помощи доверенности можно освободиться от излишних хлопот, а можно и квартиры лишиться.

Если перевести на русский язык, то, что сказано в Гражданском кодексе России то, доверенностью является письменная передача полномочий одним лицом другому для того, чтобы он мог представлять его интересы перед третьим.

Таким образом,  представительство по доверенности бывает совершенно законным и довольно-таки часто применяется  в практике сделок с недвижимым имуществом.

При этом функции, делегируемые по доверенности, имеют широчайшее разнообразие: от полномочий на сбор документов в различных инстанциях вместо владельца недвижимости – до наделения доверенного лица правом отчуждения недвижимого имущества и получения денег, предназначавшихся продавцу.

В этой статье мы познакомимся с Вами с основными правилами  выдачи и использования доверенностей на сделки с недвижимостью.  А также познакомимся  с плюсами и минусами делегирования другим людям разнообразных полномочий.

  1. «Доверительная» продажа

В том случае, когда продается квартира, являющаяся общей долевой собственностью целой семьи, отдельные ее члены могут оформить доверенности на отчуждение своих долей на менее занятых, но более предприимчивых родственников.

Данное решение вполне логично, особенно в том случае, когда продавая одно жилье, люди сразу же приобретают другое.

В то же время есть широко распространенная и безопасная методика оформления доверенностей для совершения отдельных действий, связанных с подготовкой процедуры сделки купли-продажи.

К примеру, владельцы квартиры оформляют доверенность на  имя специалиста риэлторской фирмы для подготовки документов, необходимых для ее реализации.

Ведь для того, чтобы собрать весь пакет документов для сделки, необходимо неоднократно посетить всевозможные государственные инстанции, хронически осаждаемые толпами людей.

Разумеется, не существует ни какого риска в оформлении владельцем недвижимости доверенности с подробным указанием того, какие документы и в каких организациях заказывает и получает его представитель.

В данном  документе не передается право на отчуждение (дарение, продажу или мену) недвижимого имущества, а уж тем более – на получение вместо владельца денег.

Доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью  1

  1. Генеральная доверенность

А вот участие  в сделке человека, действующего по так называемой генеральной доверенности, обязательно требует особого внимания. Человека, слабо разбирающегося в юридических тонкостях, убедить на ее оформление несложно.

Для доказательства необходимости  таких действий нечистые на руку люди могут привести внушительный список операций, которые им придется  предпринять, скажем, для оформления наследства или приватизации жилья. Поэтому, для экономии средств и денег, предложат сразу оформить доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью  на все необходимые случаи.

Типичная формулировка генеральной  доверенности на первый взгляд довольно безобидна: «Управлять и распоряжаться моим имуществом…»

Кажется, что ни слова не говорится о продаже недвижимости и получении причитающихся за нее денег, однако и таким правом, в числе других, наделяет запутавшийся владелец своих представителей.

Однако, нотариусы относятся с большой осмотрительностью к удостоверению сделок купли-продажи на основании такого рода документов. Не дай Бог, если бывший владелец скажет, что был введен в заблуждение по поводу выдачи доверенности и постарается отсудить проданную недвижимость.

  1. Рекомендуется подстраховаться

Настоятельно рекомендуется – особенно в случае, когда доверенность выдавалась весьма пожилым человеком – удостовериться, что владелец с момента выдачи доверенности (максимальный срок действия доверенности – три года) не отошел в иной мир.

В такой ситуации действие доверенности автоматически прекращается. Отнюдь  не всегда бывает, что Вы столкнулись с лукавыми аферистами. О таком положении закона, когда доверенность перестает действовать с момента смерти доверителя, работающие по ней люди, могут просто и не знать. Но сделка, проведенная по данной доверенности, в любом случае считается ничтожной.

Специалисты говорят, что у покупателя при такой сделке есть все возможности соблюсти свои интересы. Необходимо только  в договоре купли-продажи указать  условие о том, что лицу, выдавшему доверенность необходимо  подтвердить намерение совершить сделку. Данное подтверждение удостоверяется нотариусом и должно быть получено до производства расчетов между участниками сделки.

Только после получения подтверждения, что доверитель жив и здоров, а так же в курсе происходящего с его недвижимостью и одобряет деяния доверенных лиц, рекомендуется производить расчеты по сделке.

  1. Технология передачи полномочий

Давайте разберемся в том, как происходит нотариальное удостоверение доверенности на сделки с недвижимостью. Присутствия самого доверенного лица вовсе не требуется. Доверитель лично (с действующим паспортом) обращается в нотариальную контору. При себе он имеет необходимые сведения, касающиеся доверенного лица: ФИО, паспортные данные, дата и место рождения, а так же  адрес регистрации.

Необходимо как можно более четко и подробно указать действия, которые может производить доверенное лицо. Срок действия  доверенности может быть установлен любой, но не превышающий трех лет.

В одной доверенности можно указать несколько доверителей (все жильцы коммунальной квартиры, например),  либо несколько доверенных лиц (с позиции взаимозаменяемости или с определением для  каждого из них своих полномочий).

Можно так же выписать доверенность с правом передоверия. Тогда тот человек, на кого оформлена доверенность, имеет право передать свои полномочия другому лицу на собственное усмотрение, в зависимости от конкретной ситуации.

В случае изменения обстоятельств до окончания срока действия доверенности, допускается ее отозвать. Правильнее будет  обратиться к тому нотариусу, который ее оформлял, хотя разрешается это сделать и у любого другого.

Доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью 2

  1. Без нотариального благословения

Внутри России доверенность на сделки с недвижимостью может быть оформлена у любого нотариуса, независимо от того, где находятся объект недвижимости, доверенное лицо и нотариус.

Гораздо сложнее  тем, кто проживает за границей, а недвижимость имеет в России. Во многих  странах действуют договоры о правовой помощи, регламентирующие порядок легализации доверенностей, оформленных иностранными нотариусами.

Поэтому за границей рекомендуется сразу обращаться в родное консульство. Консул наделен необходимыми полномочиями.

Вместо нотариуса доверенность могут удостоверить и другие должностные лица: командиры воинских частей, дежурные и главные  врачи больниц, начальники исправительных заведений.

Доверенность, оформленная в простой письменной форме – тоже, в принципе, законна. Однако на практике реальная возможность ее применения просто не обсуждается.

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