Как приобрести квартиру с помощью ипотеки

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Азбука недвижимости, Городская недвижимость

Покупка квартиры через ипотеку.

Покупка квартиры через ипотеку

Правительство Российской Федерации одобрило долгосрочный  план развития ипотечного кредитования. Необходимость в таком плане определена тем, что ипотека до сих пор является  единственным способом улучшения  жилищных условий для большей части россиян, не имеющих возможность самостоятельно собрать средства на собственный дом или квартиру.

До последнего кризиса жилищное кредитование формировалось у нас естественным образом.  На  данный же момент государству необходимо вкладывать в эту отрасль экономики миллиарды рублей.

Для полного осуществления “ипотечного” плана необходимо всего-то «пустяк» – трехкратно повысить доходы наших сограждан, усовершенствовать условия кредитования, ну и повременить каких-то лет 20.

Что же это такое ипотека?

Это  – такой  вид залога, при котором заложенный объект недвижимости остаётся во владении залогодателя.

Кредитор, в чью пользу установлено залоговое право, является не владельцем  и не собственником жилья, а обладателем права требовать удовлетворить  долг из заложенной недвижимости.

А значит, в случае невыполнения обязательств,  он имеет право истребовать заложенное жилье, у любого владельца, кому бы оно к тому времени не принадлежало, реализовать его и из вырученных средств покрыть свои претензии к должнику.

Должник же при ипотеке не перестает быть  хозяином и владельцем заложенного жилья и не теряет возможности получать  от  него выгоду, а также отчуждать его и обременять другими залогами.

ПЛЮСЫ ИПОТЕКИ:

  • Кредит предоставляется на длительные сроки  (до 30-ти  лет), что дает возможность рассчитывать на крупную сумму ипотечного кредита.
  • Приобретаемая недвижимость (дом или квартира) при получении ипотечного кредита незамедлительно переходит в собственность заемщика.
  • Минимальный первый взнос.
  • Заемщик выплачивает кредит одинаковыми ежемесячными платежами, что дает возможность запланировать бюджет семьи на перспективу.
  • Для первого взноса возможно использование денежных сумм от реализации имеющегося жилья.  Продажа же  имеющегося жилья, при этом, может быть совершена в то же время, что и  покупка квартиры в кредит.
  • По завершению моратория на досрочное погашение (обычно – 6 месяцев после оформления кредита) можно выплатить кредит досрочно (полностью или частично). Проценты по кредиту, при этом,  выплачиваются только за время фактического использования кредита.
  • Возможность  получения льготного налогообложения на доходы физических лиц.

Идеальных банков не существует, и нередко возникают определённые трудности в той или иной ситуации.

Ипотека раскручивается стремительными темпами: банки предлагают разнообразные программы, открываются новые специализированные центры.

Тем не менее, у желающих приобрести квартиру в кредит нередко возникают сложности и при выборе конкретной кредитной программы,  и при усилиях самостоятельно сориентироваться в довольно сложной системе покупки квартиры по ипотечной схеме.

Как только человек получает  положительное решение кредитного комитета перед ним встает вопрос: что дальше?

Решение этого комитета о выдаче установленной суммы означает, что банк согласен предоставить кредит данному лицу, но требует выполнения ряда условий и к приобретаемому жилью, и к осуществлению сделки.

Кроме того. У каждого банка существуют свои требования, относящиеся к приобретаемому заемщиком жилью, так как банку предстоит брать его в залог, а этого должно хватать для обеспечения кредита.

Давайте рассмотрим особые свойства ипотечной сделки. Самое главное, выбираемое жилье должно отвечать форме "кредит-залог".

Банк предоставит кредит на сумму не более 70-85% от стоимости объекта недвижимости. (Отметим, что 100% суммы на приобретение жилья банки не выдают.)

Заемщик мысленно прибавляет к своим собственным средствам сумму, согласованную с банком, и приступает к  выбору квартиры. При этом непременно нужно выполнять требования банка к предмету залога: некоторые не кредитуют "пятиэтажки", дома с деревянными перекрытиями, "хрущевки", и т. д.

Для других финансовых структур (а таких много) обязательными условиями, выдвигаемыми  к приобретаемому жилью, являются присутствие водопровода, электричества, канализации, и чтобы дом не планировался на снос.

Все разновидности ипотеки можно поделить на несколько групп, каждая из которых имеет свои особенности.

Ипотека на первичную недвижимость

Первичной считается исключительно та недвижимость, которая еще не аккредитована на право собственности.  Но, с другой стороны, объект недвижимости, который еще не прошел аккредитацию, не может считаться таковым.

Для решения этой парадоксальной  ситуации необходимо обратиться в тот банк, который строящееся здание уже аккредитовал или согласен это сделать.

Ипотека на загородную недвижимость

Здесь трудности с получением кредита возникают из-за отсутствия (как правило) типовых проектов. Нужно достаточно четко понимать, одобрит ли банк именно этот объект недвижимости или Вам придется  подыскивать что-то другое.

Ипотека  на вторичную недвижимость

Это самая востребованная разновидность ипотеки, по которой возможность получить отказ, при соблюдении базовых требований, минимальна.

Резюме. Внимательно изучаем требования банка и выбираем  квартиру, удовлетворяющую необходимым параметрам. Согласовываем объект в банке.

Для этого необходимы все документы на объект. Однако (как правило) собственник предоставляет их лишь после внесения аванса.

Все дело в том, что при внесении аванса, хорошо бы прописать в договоре условия возврата денег.  Вдруг банк не согласится кредитовать выбранную Вами квартиру.

Такие случаи, к сожалению, были.

Банк (помимо справок, необходимых для сделки) может запросить справки на продавца из наркологического и психоневрологического диспансеров, архивную выписку из домовой книги и т. д.

Кроме того будущий заемщик обязан заказать оценку рыночной стоимости жилья у лицензированной, аккредитованной в банке оценочной компании.

После сбора всего комплекта документов, он подается в банк на согласование. Банк принимает решение о том, что квартира подходит для приобретения с помощью кредита и определяется дата сделки.

Кроме того заемщику требуется застраховать свою жизнь, здоровье и приобретаемую квартиру в аттестованной банком страховой компании, а также "титул" (возможную утрату права собственности).

В назначенный день заемщик подписывает заявления и договоры на открытие счетов в банке, аренду депозитарной ячейки и выдачу денег.

После чего вносит свои личные средства и кредитные деньги в ячейку на определенных условиях (порядок изъятия денег и т.п.).  Покупатель и продавец квартиры заключают "Договор купли-продажи квартиры с использованием кредитных средств" и подают его на государственную регистрацию.

Остается только добавить, что в квартире, приобретенной по ипотеке, можно прописаться как самому, так и прописать любого члена семьи. В дальнейшем необходимо только вовремя вносить ежемесячные платежи.

 

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