Как официально сдать квартиру и заплатить налоги

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Аренда жилья

Как официально сдать квартиру  и заплатить налоги 1

Как официально сдать квартиру и заплатить налоги 

Для большинства наших сограждан, желающих официально сдать свою квартиру и заплатить все вытекающие из данной процедуры налоги возникают очевидные и понятные любому трудности, прежде всего возникающие из-за незнания всех способов легализации данного вида предпринимательства и всех модификаций уплаты налогов.

А, для несведущих поясним, что таких форм реализации налоговых обязательств, при сдаче жилых объектов в наем существует несколько.

Ответственность владельца объекта недвижимости

На сегодняшний день, отнюдь не все российские арендодатели, отдают себе отчет, что сдача квартиры в аренду или наем определяется как полноценная предпринимательская деятельность, направленная на  извлечение выгоды.

А, следовательно, сдающий внаем квартиру владелец должен зарегистрироваться как  индивидуальный предприниматель (либо без регистрации) и  выплачивать соответствующий налог на доходы физических лиц (НДФЛ).

Иначе, такая деятельность, будет  признана незаконной и преследоваться в административном или уголовном  порядке. А сам факт уклонения от уплаты налога от данной  деятельности определяется как налоговое преступление физических  лиц (УК РФ, статья 198).

Договорные отношения

Владелец  жилого объекта, стремящийся официально сдать его за плату, должен заключить соответствующий договор найма или аренды. В случае, когда  человек передает жилье во владение юридическому лицу, то заключается договор аренды. А если квартира переходит во владение и пользование физ. лицу, то применяется договор найма.

Последний заключается в простой письменной форме и, вне зависимости от срока, не подлежит государственной регистрации. Для примера, договор найма разрешается  заключать на срок не более, чем 5 лет. В противном случае он будет признан недействительным.

Договор аренды, в противовес предыдущему,  подлежит обязательной государственной регистрации - в случае, когда  он заключен на срок более 1 года. При этом договор аренды может заключаться на произвольный срок.

Способы уплаты налогов

Все граждане, не зафиксированные в качестве индивидуальных предпринимателей, но получающие доход от найма или аренды жилых объектов, один раз в год должны отображать его в своей налоговой декларации и оплатить 13%-ый налог от полной суммы, полученной от арендаторов за прошедший финансовый год.

Заметим, что если арендатором жилого помещения выступает юридическое лицо, то как раз на него возлагается обязанность при уплате арендной  платы выступить налоговым агентом арендодателя, удержать налог из платы и внести его в бюджет.

В случаях, когда жилое помещение нанимает физ. лицо, уплата налогов возлагается  на его плечи.

Собственник, зарегистрировавшийся в качестве индивидуального предпринимателя, помимо подачи налоговой декларации, имеет право выбрать один из способов  уплаты налога:

1. Перейти на упрощенную систему налогообложения (УСН). Ставка по данному варианту  составляет 6% от общей суммы дохода. При этом налогооблагаемая база неизменна, а 6% взимается со всех получаемых по данному  договору платежей.

2. Либо использовать патентную систему налогообложения ИП, применяющего УСН.

Как официально сдать квартиру и заплатить налоги 2

Калькуляция выгоды

Для того, чтобы сэкономить на налогах при официальной сдаче квартиры необходимо сделать правильный выбор типа налогообложения. Базовым фактором при таком выборе послужит выгода, определенная по результатам сравнительного анализа величины годового налога для конкретного предпринимателя.

Для примера, арендодатель сдает квартиру в течение одного года по фиксированному тарифу. В этом случае размер годового налога по каждому варианту будет определяться следующим образом:

- Для физ. лица без ИП: фиксированная месячная ставка х 12 месяцев х 13%;

-  Для ИП по УСН при ставке 6%: фиксированная месячная ставка х 12 месяцев х 6% + 35 664,66 (обязательные страховые взносы на 2013 год, сумма в рублях);

-  Для ИП с патентом: стоимость патента + 50% от 35 664,66 (рублей).

А вот стоимость патента в каждом конкретном случае рассчитывается на основании теоретически возможного к получению данным человеком годового дохода, а так же ставки 6%.

В разных  регионах Российской Федерации был установлен индивидуальный размер потенциального годового дохода, получаемого от сдачи жилых объектов в наем. Соответственно и стоимость патента для  разных регионов страны -  разная.

Проведя несложный анализ представленных выше расчетов, можно прийти к  выводу, что первый вариант больше подходит тем наймодателям, которые получают доход от сдачи в наем своего жилья менее 42,5 тысяч рублей в месяц.

Вариант  для ИП с УСН 6% будет имееть смысл только в том случае, когда доход от аренды находится в диапазоне от 42,5 до 58,6 тысяч рублей в месяц.

Если же  доходы от аренды жилья более 58,6 тысяч рублей, то разумнее остановиться на варианте ИП на базе патента.

К тому же стоит отметить, что индивидуальный предприниматель, собирающийся приобрести патент, должен удостовериться в стабильном размере ежемесячных платежей. Ну и, разумеется,  в том, что заключенный договор в течении текущего года не будет расторгнут, потому как оплаченный патент не подлежит возврату.

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