Дарственная или завещание – что окажется выгоднее?

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Вопросы юристу

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Дарственная или завещание – что окажется выгоднее?

Вопрос всегда актуален, ведь люди жить вечно пока еще не могут, и более старшие поколения оставляют свои квартиры (либо другое имущество) детям, внукам и так далее. Во избежание лишних проблем задумываться о передаче жилья необходимо заранее. Не нужно жалеть время для заблаговременного оформления дарственного договора или обычного завещания.

Понять, какой вариант передачи жилья выгоднее, после выяснения отличия дарственной от завещания. Ну, с завещанием все просто: человек еще при жизни составляет документ, где указывает наследников своего имущества, ставит подпись и заверяет в нотариальной конторе. И после смерти завещателя наследники получают в собственность все имущество согласно документу.

Договор дарения (т.е. дарственная) заключается между дарителем и одаряемым. Иными словами, согласно этому договору собственник имущества передает его одаряемому совершенно безвозмездно. Дарственная оформляется, как правило, когда собственник желает передать имущество еще при жизни. Но в таком случае нужно учитывать ряд моментов:

- по договору дарения уже после подписания документа все имущество переходит в собственность одаряемого, а старый владелец полностью утрачивает все права на подаренное имущество;

- расторжению договор подлежит лишь в исключительных случаях. Получается, что даритель не имеет возможности отказаться от своего подарка после подписания документа, если вдруг передумает;

- одаряемый после заключения сделки имеет право распоряжаться по своему усмотрению полученным имуществом.

Что скажет кошелек?

В материальном плане оформление дарственной выгоднее больше для одаряемого, так как не будет затрат при получении имущества. При дарении недвижимости нужно будет заплатить 2000 рублей в качестве госпошлины. При дарении автомобиля размер госпошлины будет уже 2850 рублей.

При дарении любого другого имущества госпошлина не предусмотрена, но нужно будет заплатить 500 рублей нотариусу. Если вместе с жильем еще дарится земельный участок (вместе со строениями), то предусмотрена дополнительная госпошлина в размере 350 рублей.

darstvennaya-ili-zaveshhanie-chto-okazhetsya-vyigodnee-2

Для дарителя выгоднее оформлять завещание. В этом случае все денежные траты сводятся к удостоверению документа нотариусом (100 руб.). А вот получатели завещаемого имущества должны будут потом уплатить пошлину:

- 0.3% (касается наследников первой очереди, а также братьев и сестер);

- 0.6% (касается других наследников).

Процент высчитывается из оценочной стоимости наследуемого имущества. Также правопреемники при получении недвижимости и автомобиля должны будут уплатить ту же госпошлину для регистрации прав собственности, что и при оформлении дарственной.

Немного о завещании

Если имущество не планируется передавать в срочном порядке при жизни, то можно задуматься о составлении обычного завещания. Но окончательный выбор следует делать после анализа плюсов и минусов завещания.

Преимущества:

- завещатель может изменить завещание или даже вообще отказаться от него, не ставя в известность наследников;

- до самой смерти завещатель остается полноправным собственником имущества;

- в завещании можно указать «очередь» наследников. Может получиться и так, что наследник покинет этот мир раньше завещателя. Поэтому последний может указать в документе на этот случай еще одно лицо, которое получит имущество при смерти первоочередного наследника;

- до момента смерти текст завещания неизвестен наследникам. Но, несмотря на эти плюсы, для собственника может оказаться неудобным оформление завещания по сравнению с дарственной.

Недостатки:

- по закону обязательные наследники (например, несовершеннолетние дети) в любом случае претендуют на часть наследства, несмотря на то, что указано в завещании;

- частые случаи оспаривания завещания;

- до момента смерти собственник обязан содержать имущество, платить налог и т.д.

Опираясь на все описанное выше, каждый сможет самостоятельно решить, какой вариант подойдет именно для негодарственная или завещание.

С уважением, Андрей Ляпустин

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