Что такое ипотечный кредит (ипотека) на квартиру

Автор: admin  //  Рубрики: Азбука недвижимости

Ипотека 1-1

Что такое ипотечный кредит (ипотека) на квартиру

Ипотека является  одной из форм залога, согласно которой заложенная квартира находится  в собственности заемщика, а кредитор, в свою очередь, в случае несоблюдения должником принятых  обязательств получает возможность вернуть вложенные средства за счет продажи данного недвижимого имущества.

В повседневной жизни мы часто пользуемся словом «ипотека»,  подразумевая «ипотечный кредит». Этот вид кредита предоставляется банком под залог недвижимого имущества.

При данном виде кредитования заемщик оформляет кредит для  покупки недвижимости либо иные цели. Он обязуется перед кредитором погасить в установленные сроки оговоренную  сумму кредита, а обеспечением  исполнения данного обязательства выступает залог этого жилья.

Отметим, что приобретать и закладывать законом разрешено не только квартиры, а так же и иные имущественные объекты - землю, яхту, автомобиль и т.д.

Однако, на территории  России понятие ипотека прочно закрепилось именно по сделкам  с жилой недвижимостью.

Терминологическое понятие «ипотека» впервые возникло еще  в Древней Греции в шестом веке до Нашей Эры. Так греки называли ответственность заемщика перед кредитором собственным земельным участком. 

На границе заложенного участка устанавливали столб с табличкой, на которой  было написано, что этот земельный участок обеспечивает долг. 

Вот этот-то столб и получил название ипотека, что в  переводе с древнегреческого значит «подставка» или «подпорка». Хотя использование залога земли для обеспечения реализации принятых обязательств, применялся еще в Древнем Египте.

Ипотека 1-2

В нашей стране самым распространенным вариантом применения ипотеки стала покупка в кредит жилья. Залогом в такой сделке чаще всего выступает сама покупаемая квартира, хотя разрешен залог и уже находящейся в собственности квартиры.

В условиях, когда у подавляющего большинства граждан отсутствуют необходимые суммы для покупки жилья, основным достоинством ипотеки является возможность поселиться в новой квартире, а уже потом рассчитываться за приобретение, а не копить на нее много лет.

Подчеркнем, что приобретенная по ипотеке квартира, сразу переходит в  собственность заемщика, и он может в ней  зарегистрироваться. Для обеспечения безопасности данной операции применяется страхование рисков  потери заемщиком трудоспособности,   утраты права собственности на жилье и его повреждения.

Ипотека обладает еще рядом  преимуществ. Большой  срок кредитования позволяет сделать  регулярные платежи не очень крупными. Помимо этого, с учетом инфляции, которая предполагает пусть и незначительный, но рост зарплаты, ежемесячный взнос, математически оставаясь неизменным, с годами утрачивает реальную «значимость» и становится не столь обременительным.

Отметим также, что  заемщикам ипотечных кредитов, предоставляется налоговый вычет: они не платят подоходный налог с той суммы, которая была потрачена на покупку квартиры, а так же с процентов по ипотеке.

Основным минусом ипотечного кредита является большая переплата за купленную квартиру. В зависимости от срока кредитования переплата может достигать более 100%.

Ну и такой момент: в ходе оформления ипотечного кредита заемщики вынуждены нести дополнительные затраты на оплату услуг нотариуса и оценщика, на сбор за ведение ссудного счета, на  оплату банку на рассмотрение заявки и т.д.

Суммарно эти  накладные расходы вполне могут составить почти 10% от первичного взноса по кредиту.

Для многих граждан России существенным недостатком ипотеки является вынужденная необходимость предоставить большое число документов и справок. В особенности официальное подтверждение личного дохода.

Надеюсь, что изложенная в статье информация, поможет Вам правильно оценить свои возможности и принять обдуманное и взвешенное решение.

С уважением, Андрей Ляпустин

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